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The amount of military detail handled personally by the President in wartime has varied dramatically. In , Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12, militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion —a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay excise tax on spirits.
According to historian Joseph Ellis , this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D.
The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the Secretary of Defense.
The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces Pursuant to the War Powers Resolution , Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual.
Presidents have historically initiated the process for going to war,   but critics have charged that there have been several conflicts in which presidents did not get official declarations, including Theodore Roosevelt 's military move into Panama in ,  the Korean War ,  the Vietnam War ,  and the invasions of Grenada in  and Panama in The constitution also empowers the President to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries.
Such agreements become, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U. Senate by a two-thirds majority vote , become binding with the force of federal law.
General Services Administration , U. The president is the head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".
Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: Ambassadors , members of the Cabinet , and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the " advice and consent " of a majority of the Senate.
When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.
Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States.
Within the Executive Office, the president's innermost layer of aides and their assistants are located in the White House Office.
Additionally, the president possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders.
When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad.
Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e. The president also has the power to nominate federal judges , including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.
However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.
When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.
Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.
Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.
The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.
George Washington first claimed the privilege when Congress requested to see Chief Justice John Jay 's notes from an unpopular treaty negotiation with Great Britain.
While not enshrined in the Constitution, or any other law, Washington's action created the precedent for the privilege.
When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.
Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v. Jones , U.
These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.
Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.
The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.
Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.
United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. The Constitution's Ineligibility Clause prevents the president and all other executive officers from simultaneously being a member of Congress.
Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress. However, the president can take an indirect role in shaping legislation, especially if the president's political party has a majority in one or both houses of Congress.
For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.
The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress. These reports may be either written or oral, but today the greatest in importance are given as the oral State of the Union addresses, which often outline the president's legislative proposals for the coming year.
Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.
In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.
As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress.
One critic charged that presidents could appoint a "virtual army of 'czars' — each wholly unaccountable to Congress yet tasked with spearheading major policy efforts for the White House".
If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn.
For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.
As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.
Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.
The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization. Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays.
Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children. Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.
Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.
Presidential traditions also involve the president's role as head of government. Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition.
During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.
The modern presidency holds the president as one of the nation's premier celebrities. Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.
One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office". Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT  and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.
The nation's Founding Fathers expected the Congress —which was the first branch of government described in the Constitution —to be the dominant branch of government; they did not expect a strong executive department.
Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".
Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency. To serve as president, one must:.
A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.
The modern presidential campaign begins before the primary elections , which the two major political parties use to clear the field of candidates before their national nominating conventions , where the most successful candidate is made the party's nominee for president.
Typically, the party's presidential candidate chooses a vice presidential nominee, and this choice is rubber-stamped by the convention. The most common previous profession of U.
Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.
Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.
The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.
As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.
Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.
On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.
They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.
The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January.
If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner.
Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.
For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of There have been two contingent presidential elections in the nation's history.
A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.
Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.
Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.
Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.
Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.
This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.
Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath.
When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.
Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.
Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in ,  as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term.
In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.
Four years later, with the U. In response to the unprecedented length of Roosevelt's presidency, the Twenty-second Amendment was adopted in The amendment bars anyone from being elected president more than twice, or once if that person served more than two years 24 months of another president's four-year term.
Truman , president when this term limit came into force, was exempted from its limitations, and briefly sought a second full term—to which he would have otherwise been ineligible for election, as he had been president for more than two years of Roosevelt's fourth term—before he withdrew from the election.
Since the amendment's adoption, five presidents have served two full terms: Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H. Bush sought a second term, but were defeated.
Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F.
Kennedy 's unexpired term, was eligible for a second full term in , but withdrew from Democratic Primary. Additionally, Gerald Ford , who served out the last two years and five months of Nixon's second term, sought a full term, but was defeated by Jimmy Carter in the election.
Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.
Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.
Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.
Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.
The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.
Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W. Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.
If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.
If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.
Section 1 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment states that the vice president becomes president upon the removal from office, death, or resignation of the preceding president.
Speaker of the House, then, if necessary, the President pro tempore of the Senate, and then if necessary, the eligible heads of federal executive departments who form the president's Cabinet.
The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.
Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.
No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.
Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.
Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.
Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.
He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The president's salary is set by Congress, and under Article II, Section 1, Clause 7 of the Constitution, may not be increased or reduced during his or her current term of office.
The White House in Washington, D. The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there.
At various times in U. The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.
Camp David , officially titled Naval Support Facility Thurmont, a mountain-based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland , is the president's country residence.
A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s. Blair House , located next to the Eisenhower Executive Office Building at the White House Complex and Lafayette Park , serves as the president's official guest house and as a secondary residence for the president if needed.
The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.
Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.
The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.
Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.
Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet. Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.
For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.
The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.
Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family.
As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.
Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff.
The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval. Prior to , all former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 were protected by the Secret Service until the president's death.
Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.
Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.
Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.
Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.
There are currently since January 20, five living former presidents. In order of office they are:. Jimmy Carter age 94 since Bush age 94 since Bill Clinton age 72 since Bush age 72 since Barack Obama age 57 since Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.
Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.
There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.
A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.
Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.
These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P. For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation.
For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States. Executive branch of the U. Government Executive Office of the President. President   The Honorable .
Head of State Head of Government. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties.
Powers of the President of the United States. Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.
For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Four ruffles and flourishes and 'Hail to the Chief' long version.
Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency. United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.
Electoral College United States. United States presidential inauguration. Impeachment in the United States. List of residences of Presidents of the United States.
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September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Government of the United States portal. Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph.
Truman ; Lyndon B. Johnson ; and Gerald Ford Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner.
Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party. The New York Times. I therefore hereby proclaim the following:.
Screening and vetting protocols and procedures associated with visa adjudications and other immigration processes play a critical role in implementing that policy.
They enhance our ability to detect foreign nationals who may commit, aid, or support acts of terrorism, or otherwise pose a safety threat, and they aid our efforts to prevent such individuals from entering the United States.
Governments manage the identity and travel documents of their nationals and residents. They also control the circumstances under which they provide information about their nationals to other governments, including information about known or suspected terrorists and criminal-history information.
It is, therefore, the policy of the United States to take all necessary and appropriate steps to encourage foreign governments to improve their information-sharing and identity-management protocols and practices and to regularly share identity and threat information with our immigration screening and vetting systems.
That baseline incorporates three categories of criteria:. The United States expects foreign governments to provide the information needed to determine whether individuals seeking benefits under the immigration laws are who they claim to be.
The identity-management information category focuses on the integrity of documents required for travel to the United States. The criteria assessed in this category include whether the country issues electronic passports embedded with data to enable confirmation of identity, reports lost and stolen passports to appropriate entities, and makes available upon request identity-related information not included in its passports.
The United States expects foreign governments to provide information about whether persons who seek entry to this country pose national security or public-safety risks.
The national security and public-safety risk assessment category focuses on national security risk indicators.
The criteria assessed in this category include whether the country is a known or potential terrorist safe haven, whether it is a participant in the Visa Waiver Program established under section of the INA, 8 U.
The assessment focused, in particular, on identity management, security and public-safety threats, and national security risks.
Those engagements yielded significant improvements in many countries. Twenty-nine countries, for example, provided travel document exemplars for use by Department of Homeland Security officials to combat fraud.
Eleven countries agreed to share information on known or suspected terrorists. The Secretary of Homeland Security also assesses that Iraq did not meet the baseline, but that entry restrictions and limitations under a Presidential proclamation are not warranted.
The Secretary of Homeland Security recommends, however, that nationals of Iraq who seek to enter the United States be subject to additional scrutiny to determine if they pose risks to the national security or public safety of the United States.
The restrictions also encourage the countries to work with the United States to address those inadequacies and risks so that the restrictions and limitations imposed by this proclamation may be relaxed or removed as soon as possible.
I also considered foreign policy, national security , and counterterrorism goals. The restrictions and limitations imposed by this proclamation are, in my judgment, necessary to prevent the entry of those foreign nationals about whom the United States Government lacks sufficient information to assess the risks they pose to the United States.
These restrictions and limitations are also needed to elicit improved identity-management and information-sharing protocols and practices from foreign governments; and to advance foreign policy, national security , and counterterrorism objectives.
These restrictions distinguish between the entry of immigrants and nonimmigrants. Persons admitted on immigrant visas become lawful permanent residents of the United States.
Such persons may present national security or public-safety concerns that may be distinct from those admitted as nonimmigrants.
The United States affords lawful permanent residents more enduring rights than it does to nonimmigrants.
Lawful permanent residents are more difficult to remove than nonimmigrants even after national security concerns arise, which heightens the costs and dangers of errors associated with admitting such individuals.
And although immigrants generally receive more extensive vetting than nonimmigrants, such vetting is less reliable when the country from which someone seeks to emigrate exhibits significant gaps in its identity-management or information-sharing policies, or presents risks to the national security of the United States.
For all but one of those 7 countries, therefore, I am restricting the entry of all immigrants. For countries with certain mitigating factors, such as a willingness to cooperate or play a substantial role in combatting terrorism, I am restricting the entry only of certain categories of nonimmigrants, which will mitigate the security threats presented by their entry into the United States.
In those cases in which future cooperation seems reasonably likely, and accounting for foreign policy, national security , and counterterrorism objectives, I have tailored the restrictions to encourage such improvements.
Based on the considerations mentioned above, and as described further in section 2 h of this proclamation, I have determined that entry restrictions, limitations, and other measures designed to ensure proper screening and vetting for nationals of Somalia are necessary for the security and welfare of the United States.
Describing all of those reasons publicly, however, would cause serious damage to the national security of the United States, and many such descriptions are classified.
The entry into the United States of nationals of the following countries is hereby suspended and limited, as follows, subject to categorical exceptions and case-by-case waivers, as described in sections 3 and 6 of this proclamation:.
Chad has shown a clear willingness to improve in these areas. Nonetheless, Chad does not adequately share public-safety and terrorism-related information and fails to satisfy at least one key risk criterion.
At this time, additional information sharing to identify those foreign nationals applying for visas or seeking entry into the United States who represent national security and public-safety threats is necessary given the significant terrorism-related risk from this country.
The Department of State has also designated Iran as a state sponsor of terrorism. Libya, nonetheless, faces significant challenges in sharing several types of information, including public-safety and terrorism-related information necessary for the protection of the national security and public safety of the United States.
Libya also has significant inadequacies in its identity-management protocols. Further, Libya fails to satisfy at least one key risk criterion and has been assessed to be not fully cooperative with respect to receiving its nationals subject to final orders of removal from the United States.
Syria has significant inadequacies in identity-management protocols, fails to share public-safety and terrorism information, and fails to satisfy at least one key risk criterion.
There are, however, alternative sources for obtaining information to verify the citizenship and identity of nationals from Venezuela.
As a result, the restrictions imposed by this proclamation focus on government officials of Venezuela who are responsible for the identified inadequacies.
Further, nationals of Venezuela who are visa holders should be subject to appropriate additional measures to ensure traveler information remains current.
Yemen, nonetheless, faces significant identity-management challenges, which are amplified by the notable terrorist presence within its territory. The government of Yemen fails to satisfy critical identity-management requirements, does not share public-safety and terrorism-related information adequately, and fails to satisfy at least one key risk criterion.
But several other considerations support imposing entry restrictions and limitations on Somalia. Somalia has significant identity-management deficiencies.
For example, while Somalia issues an electronic passport, the United States and many other countries do not recognize it. The United States Government has identified Somalia as a terrorist safe haven.
Somalia stands apart from other countries in the degree to which its government lacks command and control of its territory, which greatly limits the effectiveness of its national capabilities in a variety of respects.
Terrorists use under-governed areas in northern, central, and southern Somalia as safe havens from which to plan, facilitate, and conduct their operations.
Somalia also remains a destination for individuals attempting to join terrorist groups that threaten the national security of the United States.
As a result of these and other factors, Somalia presents special concerns that distinguish it from other countries. Additionally, visa adjudications for nationals of Somalia and decisions regarding their entry as nonimmigrants should be subject to additional scrutiny to determine if applicants are connected to terrorist organizations or otherwise pose a threat to the national security or public safety of the United States.
Scope and Implementation of Suspensions and Limitations. Subject to the exceptions set forth in subsection b of this section and any waiver under subsection c of this section, the suspensions of and limitations on entry pursuant to section 2 of this proclamation shall apply only to foreign nationals of the designated countries who:.
The suspension of entry pursuant to section 2 of this proclamation shall not apply to:. The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall coordinate to adopt guidance addressing the circumstances in which waivers may be appropriate for foreign nationals seeking entry as immigrants or nonimmigrants.
A denying entry would cause the foreign national undue hardship;. B entry would not pose a threat to the national security or public safety of the United States; and.
C entry would be in the national interest. A determining whether the entry of a foreign national would not pose a threat to the national security or public safety of the United States;.
B determining whether the entry of a foreign national would be in the national interest;. C addressing and managing the risks of making such a determination in light of the inadequacies in information sharing, identity management, and other potential dangers posed by the nationals of individual countries subject to the restrictions and limitations imposed by this proclamation;.
D assessing whether the United States has access, at the time of the waiver determination, to sufficient information about the foreign national to determine whether entry would satisfy the requirements of subsection i of this subsection; and.
E determining the special circumstances that would justify granting a waiver under subsection iv E of this subsection.
A the foreign national has previously been admitted to the United States for a continuous period of work, study, or other long-term activity, is outside the United States on the applicable effective date under section 7 of this proclamation, seeks to reenter the United States to resume that activity, and the denial of reentry would impair that activity;.
B the foreign national has previously established significant contacts with the United States but is outside the United States on the applicable effective date under section 7 of this proclamation for work, study, or other lawful activity;.
C the foreign national seeks to enter the United States for significant business or professional obligations and the denial of entry would impair those obligations;.
D the foreign national seeks to enter the United States to visit or reside with a close family member e.
E the foreign national is an infant, a young child or adoptee, an individual needing urgent medical care, or someone whose entry is otherwise justified by the special circumstances of the case;.
F the foreign national has been employed by, or on behalf of, the United States Government or is an eligible dependent of such an employee , and the foreign national can document that he or she has provided faithful and valuable service to the United States Government;.
H the foreign national is a Canadian permanent resident who applies for a visa at a location within Canada;.
I the foreign national is traveling as a United States Government-sponsored exchange visitor; or. J the foreign national is traveling to the United States , at the request of a United States Government department or agency, for legitimate law enforcement, foreign policy, or national security purposes.
Adjustments to and Removal of Suspensions and Limitations. Within days of the date of this proclamation, and every days thereafter, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Director of National Intelligence, and other appropriate heads of agencies, shall submit a report with recommendations to the President, through appropriate Assistants to the President, regarding the following:.
The Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secretary of State, or the Attorney General may also, as provided for in Executive Order , submit to the President the names of additional countries for which any of them recommends any lawful restrictions or limitations deemed necessary for the security or welfare of the United States.
Reports on Screening and Vetting Procedures. Any prior cancellation or revocation of a visa that was solely pursuant to Executive Order shall not be the basis of inadmissibility for any future determination about entry or admissibility.
Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to limit the ability of an individual to seek asylum, refugee status, withholding of removal, or protection under the Convention Against Torture, consistent with the laws of the United States.
Executive Order ordered a temporary pause on the entry of foreign nationals from certain foreign countries. In two cases, however, Federal courts have enjoined those restrictions.
The Supreme Court has stayed those injunctions as to foreign nationals who lack a credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States, pending its review of the decisions of the lower courts.
It is the policy of the United States to enforce this proclamation to the maximum extent possible to advance the national security, foreign policy, and counterterrorism interests of the United States.
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections f and a 1 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended 8 U.
The Secretary of State shall undertake to enter into, on behalf of the United States, cooperative arrangements with appropriate foreign governments for the purpose of preventing illegal migration to the United States by sea.
This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the Executive Branch. Neither this order nor any agency guidelines, procedures, instructions, directives, rules or regulations implementing this order shall create, or shall be construed to create, any right or benefit, substantive or procedural including without limitation any right or benefit under the Administrative Procedure Act [ 5 U.
Nor shall this order be construed to require any procedures to determine whether a person is a refugee. Duties and Authorities of Agency Heads.
Consistent with applicable law,. In this regard, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide and operate a facility, or facilities, to house and provide for the needs of any such aliens.
Such a facility may be located at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base or any other appropriate location. If the Secretary of Homeland Security institutes such screening, then until a determination is made, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide for the custody, care, safety, transportation, and other needs of the aliens.
The Secretary of Homeland Security shall continue to provide for the custody, care, safety, transportation, and other needs of aliens who are determined not to be persons in need of protection until such time as they are returned to their country of origin or transit.
The Secretary of State shall provide for and execute a process for resettling such persons in need of protection, as appropriate, in countries other than their country of origin, and shall also undertake such diplomatic efforts as may be necessary to address the problem of illegal migration of aliens in the Caribbean region and to facilitate the return of those aliens who are determined not to be persons in need of protection.
The Secretary of Defense shall be responsible for providing access to such facilities and perimeter security. The Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of State , respectively, shall be responsible for reimbursement for necessary supporting utilities.
The Secretary of Defense shall also provide support to the Coast Guard in carrying out the duties described in Executive Order of May 24, [set out above], regarding interdiction of migrants.
This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity or otherwise against the United States , its departments, agencies, entities, instrumentalities, officers, employees, or any other person.
Refugee Admissions Program, exercises of authority relating to terrorism grounds of inadmissibility under this section, expedited completion of the biometric entry-exit tracking system, review and suspension of the Visa Interview Waiver Program, review of nonimmigrant visa reciprocity agreements, and collection and public availablility of certain immigration data, was repealed, effective Mar.
The screening and vetting protocols and procedures associated with the visa-issuance process and the United States Refugee Admissions Program USRAP play a crucial role in detecting foreign nationals who may commit, aid, or support acts of terrorism and in preventing those individuals from entering the United States.
It is therefore the policy of the United States to improve the screening and vetting protocols and procedures associated with the visa-issuance process and the USRAP.
These are countries that had already been identified as presenting heightened concerns about terrorism and travel to the United States.
Specifically, the suspension applied to countries referred to in, or designated under, section a 12 of the INA, 8 U.
In , the Secretary of Homeland Security designated Libya, Somalia, and Yemen as additional countries of concern for travel purposes, based on consideration of three statutory factors related to terrorism and national security: Additionally, Members of Congress have expressed concerns about screening and vetting procedures following recent terrorist attacks in this country and in Europe.
Under these authorities, I determined that, for a brief period of 90 days, while existing screening and vetting procedures were under review, the entry into the United States of certain aliens from the seven identified countries—each afflicted by terrorism in a manner that compromised the ability of the United States to rely on normal decision-making procedures about travel to the United States—would be detrimental to the interests of the United States.
Nonetheless, I permitted the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security to grant case-by-case waivers when they determined that it was in the national interest to do so.
Terrorist groups have sought to infiltrate several nations through refugee programs. Nonetheless, I permitted the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security to jointly grant case-by-case waivers when they determined that it was in the national interest to do so.
While that order allowed for prioritization of refugee claims from members of persecuted religious minority groups, that priority applied to refugees from every nation, including those in which Islam is a minority religion, and it applied to minority sects within a religion.
That order was not motivated by animus toward any religion, but was instead intended to protect the ability of religious minorities—whoever they are and wherever they reside—to avail themselves of the USRAP in light of their particular challenges and circumstances.
Most significantly, enforcement of critical provisions of that order has been temporarily halted by court orders that apply nationwide and extend even to foreign nationals with no prior or substantial connection to the United States.
Each of these countries is a state sponsor of terrorism, has been significantly compromised by terrorist organizations , or contains active conflict zones.
Moreover, the significant presence in each of these countries of terrorist organizations , their members, and others exposed to those organizations increases the chance that conditions will be exploited to enable terrorist operatives or sympathizers to travel to the United States.
Finally, once foreign nationals from these countries are admitted to the United States, it is often difficult to remove them, because many of these countries typically delay issuing, or refuse to issue, travel documents.
Iran has been designated as a state sponsor of terrorism since and continues to support various terrorist groups, including Hizballah, Hamas, and terrorist groups in Iraq.
Iran does not cooperate with the United States in counterterrorism efforts. Libya is an active combat zone, with hostilities between the internationally recognized government and its rivals.
In many parts of the country, security and law enforcement functions are provided by armed militias rather than state institutions. Violent extremist groups, including the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria ISIS , have exploited these conditions to expand their presence in the country.
The United States Embassy in Libya suspended its operations in Portions of Somalia have been terrorist safe havens. Somalia has porous borders, and most countries do not recognize Somali identity documents.
The Somali government cooperates with the United States in some counterterrorism operations but does not have the capacity to sustain military pressure on or to investigate suspected terrorists.
Sudan has been designated as a state sponsor of terrorism since because of its support for international terrorist groups, including Hizballah and Hamas.
Syria has been designated as a state sponsor of terrorism since The Syrian government is engaged in an ongoing military conflict against ISIS and others for control of portions of the country.
At the same time, Syria continues to support other terrorist groups. It has allowed or encouraged extremists to pass through its territory to enter Iraq.
ISIS continues to attract foreign fighters to Syria and to use its base in Syria to plot or encourage attacks around the globe, including in the United States.
The United States Embassy in Syria suspended its operations in Yemen is the site of an ongoing conflict between the incumbent government and the Houthi-led opposition.
In , the United States Embassy in Yemen suspended its operations, and embassy staff were relocated out of the country. Yemen has been supportive of, but has not been able to cooperate fully with, the United States in counterterrorism efforts.
Accordingly, while that assessment is ongoing, I am imposing a temporary pause on the entry of nationals from Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen, subject to categorical exceptions and case-by-case waivers, as described in section 3 of this order.
Portions of Iraq remain active combat zones. In particular, those Iraqi government forces that have fought to regain more than half of the territory previously dominated by ISIS have shown steadfast determination and earned enduring respect as they battle an armed group that is the common enemy of Iraq and the United States.
In addition, since Executive Order was issued, the Iraqi government has expressly undertaken steps to enhance travel documentation, information sharing, and the return of Iraqi nationals subject to final orders of removal.
Decisions about issuance of visas or granting admission to Iraqi nationals should be subjected to additional scrutiny to determine if applicants have connections with ISIS or other terrorist organizations, or otherwise pose a risk to either national security or public safety.
Since , hundreds of persons born abroad have been convicted of terrorism-related crimes in the United States. They have included not just persons who came here legally on visas but also individuals who first entered the country as refugees.
For example, in January , two Iraqi nationals admitted to the United States as refugees in were sentenced to 40 years and to life in prison, respectively, for multiple terrorism-related offenses.
And in October , a native of Somalia who had been brought to the United States as a child refugee and later became a naturalized United States citizen was sentenced to 30 years in prison for attempting to use a weapon of mass destruction as part of a plot to detonate a bomb at a crowded Christmas-tree-lighting ceremony in Portland, Oregon.
The Attorney General has reported to me that more than persons who entered the United States as refugees are currently the subjects of counterterrorism investigations by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
The Secretary of Homeland Security may conclude that certain information is needed from particular countries even if it is not needed from every country.
I therefore direct that the entry into the United States of nationals of those six countries be suspended for 90 days from the effective date of this order, subject to the limitations, waivers, and exceptions set forth in sections 3 and 12 of this order.
The Secretary of State, the Attorney General , or the Secretary of Homeland Security may also submit to the President the names of additional countries for which any of them recommends other lawful restrictions or limitations deemed necessary for the security or welfare of the United States.
Subject to the exceptions set forth in subsection b of this section and any waiver under subsection c of this section, the suspension of entry pursuant to section 2 of this order shall apply only to foreign nationals of the designated countries who:.
Notwithstanding the suspension of entry pursuant to section 2 of this order, a consular officer , or, as appropriate, the Commissioner, U. Unless otherwise specified by the Secretary of Homeland Security, any waiver issued by a consular officer as part of the visa issuance process will be effective both for the issuance of a visa and any subsequent entry on that visa, but will leave all other requirements for admission or entry unchanged.
Case-by-case waivers could be appropriate in circumstances such as the following:. Additional Inquiries Related to Nationals of Iraq. An application by any Iraqi national for a visa, admission, or other immigration benefit should be subjected to thorough review, including, as appropriate, consultation with a designee of the Secretary of Defense and use of the additional information that has been obtained in the context of the close U.
Such review shall include consideration of whether the applicant has connections with ISIS or other terrorist organizations or with territory that is or has been under the dominant influence of ISIS, as well as any other information bearing on whether the applicant may be a threat to commit acts of terrorism or otherwise threaten the national security or public safety of the United States.
This program shall include the development of a uniform baseline for screening and vetting standards and procedures, such as in-person interviews; a database of identity documents proffered by applicants to ensure that duplicate documents are not used by multiple applicants; amended application forms that include questions aimed at identifying fraudulent answers and malicious intent; a mechanism to ensure that applicants are who they claim to be; a mechanism to assess whether applicants may commit, aid, or support any kind of violent, criminal, or terrorist acts after entering the United States; and any other appropriate means for ensuring the proper collection of all information necessary for a rigorous evaluation of all grounds of inadmissibility or grounds for the denial of other immigration benefits.
Realignment of the U. Refugee Admissions Program for Fiscal Year During the day period, the Secretary of State, in conjunction with the Secretary of Homeland Security and in consultation with the Director of National Intelligence, shall review the USRAP application and adjudication processes to determine what additional procedures should be used to ensure that individuals seeking admission as refugees do not pose a threat to the security and welfare of the United States, and shall implement such additional procedures.
The suspension described in this subsection shall not apply to refugee applicants who, before the effective date of this order, have been formally scheduled for transit by the Department of State.
The Secretary of State shall resume travel of refugees into the United States under the USRAP days after the effective date of this order, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall resume making decisions on applications for refugee status only for stateless persons and nationals of countries for which the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Director of National Intelligence have jointly determined that the additional procedures implemented pursuant to this subsection are adequate to ensure the security and welfare of the United States.
To that end, the Secretary of State shall examine existing law to determine the extent to which, consistent with applicable law, State and local jurisdictions may have greater involvement in the process of determining the placement or resettlement of refugees in their jurisdictions, and shall devise a proposal to lawfully promote such involvement.
The initial report shall be submitted within days of the effective date of this order, a second report shall be submitted within days of the effective date of this order, and a third report shall be submitted within days of the effective date of this order.
The Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit further reports every days thereafter until the system is fully deployed and operational.
This suspension shall not apply to any foreign national traveling on a diplomatic or diplomatic-type visa, North Atlantic Treaty Organization visa, C—2 visa for travel to the United Nations, or G—1, G—2, G—3, or G—4 visa; traveling for purposes related to an international organization designated under the IOIA; or traveling for purposes of conducting meetings or business with the United States Government.
The Secretary of State shall review all nonimmigrant visa reciprocity agreements and arrangements to ensure that they are, with respect to each visa classification, truly reciprocal insofar as practicable with respect to validity period and fees, as required by sections c and of the INA, 8 U.
If another country does not treat United States nationals seeking nonimmigrant visas in a truly reciprocal manner, the Secretary of State shall adjust the visa validity period, fee schedule, or other treatment to match the treatment of United States nationals by that foreign country, to the extent practicable.
Transparency and Data Collection. Cornell Law School Search Cornell. II to have had a physical or mental disorder and a history of behavior associated with the disorder, which behavior has posed a threat to the property, safety, or welfare of the alien or others and which behavior is likely to recur or to lead to other harmful behavior, or.
B Waiver authorized For provision authorizing waiver of certain clauses of subparagraph A , see subsection g. C Exception from immunization requirement for adopted children 10 years of age or younger Clause ii of subparagraph A shall not apply to a child who— i is 10 years of age or younger,.
II a violation of or a conspiracy or attempt to violate any law or regulation of a State , the United States , or a foreign country relating to a controlled substance as defined in section of title 21 ,.
II the maximum penalty possible for the crime of which the alien was convicted or which the alien admits having committed or of which the acts that the alien admits having committed constituted the essential elements did not exceed imprisonment for one year and, if the alien was convicted of such crime, the alien was not sentenced to a term of imprisonment in excess of 6 months regardless of the extent to which the sentence was ultimately executed.
B Multiple criminal convictions Any alien convicted of 2 or more offenses other than purely political offenses , regardless of whether the conviction was in a single trial or whether the offenses arose from a single scheme of misconduct and regardless of whether the offenses involved moral turpitude, for which the aggregate sentences to confinement were 5 years or more is inadmissible.
C Controlled substance traffickers Any alien who the consular officer or the Attorney General knows or has reason to believe— i is or has been an illicit trafficker in any controlled substance or in any listed chemical as defined in section of title 21 , or is or has been a knowing aider, abettor, assister, conspirator, or colluder with others in the illicit trafficking in any such controlled or listed substance or chemical, or endeavored to do so; or.
D Prostitution and commercialized vice Any alien who— i is coming to the United States solely, principally, or incidentally to engage in prostitution, or has engaged in prostitution within 10 years of the date of application for a visa, admission, or adjustment of status,.
E Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution Any alien — i who has committed in the United States at any time a serious criminal offense as defined in section h of this title ,.
F Waiver authorized For provision authorizing waiver of certain subparagraphs of this paragraph, see subsection h. G Foreign government officials who have committed particularly severe violations of religious freedom Any alien who, while serving as a foreign government official, was responsible for or directly carried out, at any time, particularly severe violations of religious freedom, as defined in section of title 22 , is inadmissible.
H Significant traffickers in persons i In general Any alien who commits or conspires to commit human trafficking offenses in the United States or outside the United States , or who the consular officer , the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secretary of State, or the Attorney General knows or has reason to believe is or has been a knowing aider, abettor, assister, conspirator, or colluder with such a trafficker in severe forms of trafficking in persons, as defined in the section of title 22 , is inadmissible.
I Money laundering Any alien — i who a consular officer or the Attorney General knows, or has reason to believe, has engaged, is engaging, or seeks to enter the United States to engage, in an offense which is described in section or of title 18 relating to laundering of monetary instruments ; or.
B Terrorist activities i In general Any alien who— I has engaged in a terrorist activity ;. II a consular officer , the Attorney General , or the Secretary of Homeland Security knows, or has reasonable ground to believe, is engaged in or is likely to engage after entry in any terrorist activity as defined in clause iv ;.
III has, under circumstances indicating an intention to cause death or serious bodily harm, incited terrorist activity ;.
IV is a representative as defined in clause v of— aa a terrorist organization as defined in clause vi ; or. V is a member of a terrorist organization described in subclause I or II of clause vi ;.
VI is a member of a terrorist organization described in clause vi III , unless the alien can demonstrate by clear and convincing evidence that the alien did not know, and should not reasonably have known, that the organization was a terrorist organization ;.
VII endorses or espouses terrorist activity or persuades others to endorse or espouse terrorist activity or support a terrorist organization ;.
VIII has received military-type training as defined in section D c 1 of title 18 from or on behalf of any organization that, at the time the training was received, was a terrorist organization as defined in clause vi ; or.
IX is the spouse or child of an alien who is inadmissible under this subparagraph, if the activity causing the alien to be found inadmissible occurred within the last 5 years,.
An alien who is an officer, official, representative, or spokesman of the Palestine Liberation Organization is considered, for purposes of this chapter, to be engaged in a terrorist activity.
II whom the consular officer or Attorney General has reasonable grounds to believe has renounced the activity causing the alien to be found inadmissible under this section.
I The highjacking or sabotage of any conveyance including an aircraft, vessel, or vehicle. II The seizing or detaining, and threatening to kill, injure, or continue to detain, another individual in order to compel a third person including a governmental organization to do or abstain from doing any act as an explicit or implicit condition for the release of the individual seized or detained.
III A violent attack upon an internationally protected person as defined in section b 4 of title 18 or upon the liberty of such a person.
V The use of any— a biological agent, chemical agent, or nuclear weapon or device, or. VI A threat, attempt, or conspiracy to do any of the foregoing.
II to prepare or plan a terrorist activity ;. III to gather information on potential targets for terrorist activity ;. IV to solicit funds or other things of value for— aa a terrorist activity ;.
V to solicit any individual— aa to engage in conduct otherwise described in this subsection;. VI to commit an act that the actor knows, or reasonably should know, affords material support, including a safe house, transportation, communications, funds, transfer of funds or other material financial benefit, false documentation or identification, weapons including chemical, biological, or radiological weapons , explosives, or training— aa for the commission of a terrorist activity ;.
II otherwise designated, upon publication in the Federal Register, by the Secretary of State in consultation with or upon the request of the Attorney General or the Secretary of Homeland Security, as a terrorist organization , after finding that the organization engages in the activities described in subclauses I through VI of clause iv ; or.
III that is a group of two or more individuals, whether organized or not, which engages in, or has a subgroup which engages in, the activities described in subclauses I through VI of clause iv.
C Foreign policy i In general An alien whose entry or proposed activities in the United States the Secretary of State has reasonable ground to believe would have potentially serious adverse foreign policy consequences for the United States is inadmissible.
D Immigrant membership in totalitarian party i In general Any immigrant who is or has been a member of or affiliated with the Communist or any other totalitarian party or subdivision or affiliate thereof , domestic or foreign, is inadmissible.
II the alien is not a threat to the security of the United States. E Participants in Nazi persecution, genocide, or the commission of any act of torture or extrajudicial killing i Participation in Nazi persecutions Any alien who, during the period beginning on March 23, , and ending on May 8, , under the direction of, or in association with— I the Nazi government of Germany,.
II any government in any area occupied by the military forces of the Nazi government of Germany,. III any government established with the assistance or cooperation of the Nazi government of Germany, or.
IV any government which was an ally of the Nazi government of Germany,. II under color of law of any foreign nation, any extrajudicial killing, as defined in section 3 a of the Torture Victim Protection Act of 28 U.
F Association with terrorist organizations Any alien who the Secretary of State , after consultation with the Attorney General , or the Attorney General , after consultation with the Secretary of State, determines has been associated with a terrorist organization and intends while in the United States to engage solely, principally, or incidentally in activities that could endanger the welfare, safety, or security of the United States is inadmissible.
G Recruitment or use of child soldiers Any alien who has engaged in the recruitment or use of child soldiers in violation of section of title 18 is inadmissible.
IV assets, resources, and financial status; and. V education and skills. C Family-sponsored immigrants Any alien who seeks admission or adjustment of status under a visa number issued under section b 2 or a of this title is inadmissible under this paragraph unless— i the alien has obtained— I status as a spouse or a child of a United States citizen pursuant to clause ii , iii , or iv of section a 1 A of this title ;.
II classification pursuant to clause ii or iii of section a 1 B of this title ; or. D Certain employment-based immigrants Any alien who seeks admission or adjustment of status under a visa number issued under section b of this title by virtue of a classification petition filed by a relative of the alien or by an entity in which such relative has a significant ownership interest is inadmissible under this paragraph unless such relative has executed an affidavit of support described in section a of this title with respect to such alien.
II the employment of such alien will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of workers in the United States similarly employed.
II has exceptional ability in the sciences or the arts. B Unqualified physicians An alien who is a graduate of a medical school not accredited by a body or bodies approved for the purpose by the Secretary of Education regardless of whether such school of medicine is in the United States and who is coming to the United States principally to perform services as a member of the medical profession is inadmissible, unless the alien i has passed parts I and II of the National Board of Medical Examiners Examination or an equivalent examination as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services and ii is competent in oral and written English.
II are comparable with that required for an American health-care worker of the same type; and. III are authentic and, in the case of a license, unencumbered;.
For purposes of clause ii , determination of the standardized tests required and of the minimum scores that are appropriate are within the sole discretion of the Secretary of Health and Human Services and are not subject to further administrative or judicial review.
D Application of grounds The grounds for inadmissibility of aliens under subparagraphs A and B shall apply to immigrants seeking admission or adjustment of status under paragraph 2 or 3 of section b of this title.
C Misrepresentation i In general Any alien who, by fraud or willfully misrepresenting a material fact, seeks to procure or has sought to procure or has procured a visa, other documentation, or admission into the United States or other benefit provided under this chapter is inadmissible.
II Exception In the case of an alien making a representation described in subclause I , if each natural parent of the alien or, in the case of an adopted alien , each adoptive parent of the alien is or was a citizen whether by birth or naturalization , the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of making such representation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be inadmissible under any provision of this subsection based on such representation.
D Stowaways Any alien who is a stowaway is inadmissible. E Smugglers i In general Any alien who at any time knowingly has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided any other alien to enter or to try to enter the United States in violation of law is inadmissible.
F Subject of civil penalty i In general An alien who is the subject of a final order for violation of section c of this title is inadmissible.
II whose visa has been issued without compliance with the provisions of section of this title ,. II is not in possession of a valid nonimmigrant visa or border crossing identification card at the time of application for admission,.
B Draft evaders Any person who has departed from or who has remained outside the United States to avoid or evade training or service in the armed forces in time of war or a period declared by the President to be a national emergency is inadmissible, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to an alien who at the time of such departure was a nonimmigrant and who is seeking to reenter the United States as a nonimmigrant.
II departed the United States while an order of removal was outstanding,. II Asylees No period of time in which an alien has a bona fide application for asylum pending under section of this title shall be taken into account in determining the period of unlawful presence in the United States under clause i unless the alien during such period was employed without authorization in the United States.
III Family unity No period of time in which the alien is a beneficiary of family unity protection pursuant to section of the Immigration Act of shall be taken into account in determining the period of unlawful presence in the United States under clause i.
II has filed a nonfrivolous application for a change or extension of status before the date of expiration of the period of stay authorized by the Attorney General , and.
III has not been employed without authorization in the United States before or during the pendency of such application,.
C Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violations i In general Any alien who— I has been unlawfully present in the United States for an aggregate period of more than 1 year, or.
II has been ordered removed under section b 1 of this title , section a of this title , or any other provision of law,.
B Guardian required to accompany helpless alien Any alien — i who is accompanying another alien who is inadmissible and who is certified to be helpless from sickness, mental or physical disability, or infancy pursuant to section c of this title , and.
C International child abduction i In general Except as provided in clause ii , any alien who, after entry of an order by a court in the United States granting custody to a person of a United States citizen child who detains or retains the child, or withholds custody of the child, outside the United States from the person granted custody by that order, is inadmissible until the child is surrendered to the person granted custody by that order.
II is known by the Secretary of State to be intentionally providing material support or safe haven to an alien described in clause i , or.
D Unlawful voters i In general Any alien who has voted in violation of any Federal, State , or local constitutional provision, statute, ordinance, or regulation is inadmissible.
E Former citizens who renounced citizenship to avoid taxation Any alien who is a former citizen of the United States who officially renounces United States citizenship and who is determined by the Attorney General to have renounced United States citizenship for the purpose of avoiding taxation by the United States is inadmissible.
The Attorney General shall prescribe conditions, including exaction of such bonds as may be necessary, to control and regulate the admission and return of inadmissible aliens applying for temporary admission under this paragraph.Archived from the original on May 13, A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:. William Pabon March 13, 6: University of Helsinki, House elections Senate elections Gubernatorial elections. Such amendments shall apply to individuals in proceedings under the Walkthrough casino of passion and Nationality Act [ Beste Spielothek in Untergünzkofen finden U. Presidents have sent forces abroad more than times; Congress has declared war only five times: Many have criticized this aspect of the Resolution as unwise and unconstitutional, and no president in the past 35 nicht seriös has filed a report "pursuant" to these legit online casinos with no deposit bonus provisions. Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Eisenhower — John F. Retrieved November 27,